What Is Pipe Fittings?

Pipe fittings are connectors/jointers during a plumbing system that help connect one pipe to another of the same or different size to increase its length or change flow direction. These fittings help to hitch, reduce or divert the water system flow, and are available in different sizes to fit the pipe they will combine. Fittings are available in different types of materials like iron, brass, copper, PVC, etc. Several pipe fittings are available for specific functions and purposes.

Pipe fittings sizes are essential, and there are standard sizes to follow. Maximum fittings contain openings of identical size on each end, but some fittings are made with different-sized openings and performance as they transition from one size pipe to another.

Types of Pipe Fitting And Images

The following types of pipe fittings are commonly used in plumbing systems.

Elbow Tee Cross-Type Barb Nipple Double Tapped Bushing Adaptor Reducer Coupling Union Mechanical Sleeve Olet Valve Wye Plug Cap

Elbow:

Elbow features a bend that resembles the shape of an arm joint provided between pipes to change the flow direction. It comes in several angles 22.5°, 45°, and 90°.

The standard elbow is suitable for pipes of the same size, while the reducer elbow is employed when connecting pipes have different sizes.

It consists of varied types of material and usually comes with female ends. Butt or socket welding can also be used to fix them.

Tee:

As the name indicates, it’s a shape like a capital “T”. Tee has an inlet and outlet. It comes in several sizes and is supposed to be stronger than the cross-fitting.

A diverter tee is suitable for a heating plant that uses water. it’s directional marking and is required to be installed perfectly to operate the system.

Cross-Type:

The cross fitting has four openings altogether directions at its ends and can join four pipes. It comes with three outlets and one inlet, or one outlet and three inlets. it’s provided when four pipes are meeting at one place.

Since it’s four connection points for four pipes, it remains under more stress than other fittings. Usually, it’s made more sturdy than other fittings. it’s generally used for the fire sprinkler system.

Barb:

A barb helps to attach a hose to a pipe. Generally, it’s male at one end, while at another end, a barbed tube that’s ridged and tapered cone.

For keeping it secure, it’s going to also contain a type of clamp. it’s made from brass if it carries hot water and plastic if it carries cold water.

Nipple:

A nipple may be a short pipe fitting that connects two fittings instead of joining two pipes. it’s generally male and comes in various sizes.

A nipple may be a small but essential pipe fitting in the plumbing system, made of brass, copper, steel, and CPVC. an in-depth nipple has continuous threading.

Double Tapped Bushing:

It is a type of nipple having thread inside and outside. Since the center hole is threaded(tapped) from the inner and outer,  it’s called double-tapped.

It is a type of reducer but doesn’t have flexibility like a reducer. It generally comes with a feminine end.

Adaptor:

The adapter helps make a clear end of the pipe into a threaded end, either male or female. It connects pipes of various types and can convert a pipe into male or female.

Generally, adapters are used for PVC or copper pipes. The male adapter features a male thread, and therefore the female adapter has a female thread. It’s one end threadless, left for welding, soldering, or glued to the pipe.

Reducer:

As the name indicates, it reduces the be due high to low by reducing the pipe size. it’s two types: concentric reducer and eccentric reducer.

There are two sorts of reducers. One may be a concentric reducer having cone-shaped with a gradual reduction around the pipe. But thanks to its cone shape, it’s a possibility of accumulation of air resulting in cavitation. The other is that the eccentric reducer has one edge parallel to the joining pipe, thanks to which there is no possibility of accumulation of air.

Coupling:

A coupling helps to attach two pipes having a similar diameter and the same type. it’s also helpful to restore leaking or broken pipes.

Compression coupling is standard coupling connected between two pipes, preventing leakage by rubber seals or gaskets on each side or glue provided. Slip coupling or repair coupling is more manageable to position, has two pipes organized together into the other, and therefore the inner pipe can move up to some distance. it’s suitable to fix specific lengths of damaged pipes.

Union:

The union may be a type of fitting that functions similarly to a coupling, but we can’t remove coupling after installation. While we will remove the union whenever required.

Union features a nut, male and feminine ended threads. it’s also helpful for the maintenance and repair of the pipe.

Mechanical Sleeve:

A mechanical sleeve may be a type of coupling that connects the pipes via screws or other means that make it easy to install.

It consists of a metal jacket inside which rubber is inserted and has chrome steel clamps on the outer side. As we tighten the external clamp, tight seal shapes thanks to the contraction of the inside rubber. it’s suitable for hard-to-install areas because it is slightly flexible and can accommodate minor misalignment.

Olet:

Olet may be a small fitting that is helpful when standard size fitting is not suitable as per our need.

When the inlet pipe size is bigger than outlet pipe in the T section, then olet comes in use. Various sorts of olets are available as per the requirement. Essential sorts of olet are as follows.

1. Flange olet
2. Sweep olet
3. Lateral olet
4. Nipple olet
5. Elbow olet
6. Threaded olet
7. Socket weld Olet
8. Butt-Weld olet

Valve:

Valves are essential fitting during a plumbing system and are provided to stop or control liquid flow in its way. Various sorts of valves are available based on their applications including throttling, non-return, and isolation.

Non-return valves only permit the liquid to flow in one direction and are often seen in drains. it’s also known as check valves.

An isolation valve is an important part of the plumbing system that helps in system service or maintenance. This valve is left either open or closed all the time. Since this valve may require use in an emergency, it should be checked now then to know whether it is operational or not. A throttling valve helps to regulate the amount and pressure of a liquid. Since its mechanism experiences stresses, it’s susceptible to wear out earlier than other valves. Generally, it’s installed near the isolation valve.

Some essential sorts of valves and their use are as follows:

1.Gate Valve, valve and Plug valve – For isolation only
2. Globe Valve – For throttling
3. Check Valve or Non-return – For stopping reverse flow
4. valve – For isolation and throttling
5. Diaphragm Valve – For isolation and throttling

Wye:

Wye features a shape like a letter “Y”. it’s used to join three pipes. This fitting allows the pipes to vary their elevation and helps to branch out into a new line and drain.

It is the same as T fitting but has a smoother angle to help reduce turbulence and friction in the fluid. Mostly this fitting is provided to hitch the vertical drain pipe to the horizontal one.

Plug:

A plug may be a short but essential fitting of the plumbing system that helps to close pipe openings during checks and repairs. Generally, plugs contain male threads.

Cap:

Cap is analogous to a plug, but the sole difference is a cap has a female thread while a plug has a male thread. Both cap and plug have an identical role. A cap comes in various materials like plastic, rubber, steel, copper, etc.

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